David Champagne et Georges-Henry Laffont
«Forward. Hypermobile Cities, between social regulations and self-construction» (p. 15-25)
Sandrine Berroir, Hadrien Commenges, Jean Debrie, Juliette Maulat, Colette Bordedebat, Guillaume Blandeau, Esther Briend et Justine Lanon
«Draw Me a City without Cars: Aspirations Regarding Lifestyle and Mobility in Île-de-France» (p. 27-73)
Abstract:In a context of questioning the role of the automobile in urban mobility, this paper presents the first results of a prospective research that aims at sketching the conditions of the transition to a Post-Car Île-de-France. Based on a quantitative and qualitative approach of mobility practices and individual aspirations of Paris region inhabitants, this paper highlights the plurality of mobility practices, of these ideals, but also the shared aspirations for improvement of mobility conditions, proximity and slowing down as a counterpoint to urban hypermobility. Taking into account the inhabitants’ aspirations allows to draw a partial but shared scenario of reduction of car mobility in the Île-de-France region that takes into account the diversity of ideals, territorial constraints and the center-periphery pattern of mobilities. These results contribute to the debates on the place of cars in cities and on the conditions for a transition of mobilities, and highlight the issue of territorial adjustment of policies that aim to reduce car dependency.
Key-words: prospective; Post-Car; mobility; lifestyles; practices; aspirations; Île-De-France
«Heritage-Making and Tourism Development: A Dual Entry for
Questioning the Relationship to Space and Time» (p. 75-110)
Abstract:This contribution is about the dual-process of tourism development and heritage making of the historic city centers, and to the co-presence of individuals living there (in a permanent or temporary way), namely permanent inhabitants and tourists. These dual entries, by tourism and heritage, lead us to wonder quite particularly about the relations between space and time. If the spatial dimension of social relations that we comprehend stay constant, ie the center of an “heritagized” and “touristified” city, these are three temporal dimensions that will be examined as so many angles of analysis. We will tackle the time of the everyday life (and off-everyday life), the time of the seasons and the time of the “patrimonial memories”. Our subject is partly established on a field work led in the small French cities of Sarlat (Dordogne) and Dinan (Côtes-d’Armor).
Key-words: heritage-making; tourism development; space-time; temporality; co-presence
«Outdoor Art as a Modification Factor for Urban Space-Time» (p. 111-143)
Abstract: This paper offers a philosophical analysis of the implantation of artworks in the urban space and time and its implications, as opposed to their evolution within the museum space. Indeed, the museum is a place where objects are protected from time passing induced wear. In this regard, an artwork can be defined as an object which lasts long (Arendt, 1972). Our hypothesis consists in considering artworks as defined by a temporality of their own, and that their implantation in urban space leads to modifications to such space’s temporality and uses. The paper starts by defining a temporality specific to artworks. Then it examines to which extent the urban space, our experience and uses of it are changed by the presence of artworks. Finally, it questions the existence of a paradigm shift – from accessibility to participation – induced by the presence of artwork in urban space.
Key-words: artwork; museum; urban space; temporalities; participation
«Familiar’s Strangeness: For a Renewal of Alfred Schütz Social World Theory» (p. 145-183)
Abstract: Alfred Schutz’s sociology has the potential to capture the complex interplay of familiarity and strangeness in the everyday life of contemporary societies. However, his analyses of the arrival of a stranger in a group, put together in his well-known essay “The Stranger”, run into difficulties calling for a critical reconstruction. A reading of his background theses on social typification and knowledge by acquaintance brings to light limitations to the ideal type of the migrant, which expresses a primacy of the external relation to strangeness. This approach to the problem of belonging overstates the conformity of practices and routines in the group receiving the stranger on his territory. An awareness of internal alterity opens the discussion to the latent strangeness within the We and the Ego through a fresh take on tools provided by social phenomenology.
Key-words: stranger; migration; exclusion; journey; alterity; identity; familiarity; everyday life; Knowledge; phenomenology
Georges-Henry Laffont et Denis Martouzet
«The Emotion Revealer of the “Being-there”: Conceptual, Methodological and Empirical Elements» (p. 185-214)
Abstract: This article offers a synthesis of work carried out over the past two decades on the topic of the relationship with space, particularly in its affective dimension. It shows that knowledge of the affective relationship to space, defined as the joint result of the interaction between experiences (practices, thoughts, missed acts, emotions, etc.), their reprocessing through memories and projections, anticipations, allows us to grasp the construction of a “being there” defined as the synthesis, on one hand, of the qualitative evaluation that the individual makes of his situation at a given moment in relation to his trajectory and, on the other hand, the assessment of his ability to control distances between his location and places and therefore the links that matter to him. This “being there” means, with regard to what an individual is and/or wishes to become, always maintaining a triple dynamic balance between being in the right place and at the right distance, between the active part of “doing with” and its passive part, between a valued, devaluing, assumed or rejected past and a desired or feared future.
Key-words:to be there; to live; affects; to do with; space/time; distance
Mélanie Girard et Simon Laflamme
«Intimate Partner Homicide in Aboriginal and Non-Aboriginal Populations of Canadian Women» (p. 217-263)
Abstract: In 2015, the rate of Canadian women charged with homicide was 31 times higher for Aboriginals than for non-Aboriginals, a number which is reflected in the killing of an intimate partner. In a recent study, our Canadian sample of women who had killed a male partner consisted of 55% Aboriginals. This overrepresentation leads us to question whether Aboriginal women, in their rapport to intimate partner homicide, are different from non-Aboriginal women. Our analyses are based on Parole Board decisional documents and on transcriptions of hearings before the Parole Board. These analyses examine quantitative and qualitative data. They show that, on a number of aspects, these women cannot be differentiated according to ethnicity; they reveal that, when ethnicity does come into play, it does so in that it highlights the marginality of Aboriginal life, especially in the context of Reserves.
Key-words: intimate partner homicide; women; ethnicity; aboriginals; reserves
«This Strange Folding from which Nothing Is the Same. The Question of Contingency in Social Sciences: The Event»
Abstract: There exists, in the human and social sciences, a category named event which, chased as was Candide from the castle of Thunder-ten-tronckh, was, like him, obliged to make a long journey before regaining its rights in areas where it reappears, although somewhat more circumscribed. The purpose of this article is to better understand the meaning that this term can embody today in order to make it into a real analytical category likely to help the modeling of contemporary societies. This modeling is not based solely on the event. It is based on the knot of relationships that binds this event, the individuals and the societal system. The approach of this modeling is therefore “relational”. And the event we are discussing here cannot be considered outside of this generalized relation which I call “relational field” and which suggests that none of the three analytic categories mentioned above has any meaning or interest in and of itself, for modeling purposes, outside of this field.
Key-words: relational field; event; individual; modeling; relationship; system