Volume 10, number 2, 2015

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SIMON LE ROULLEY

« Saturated Time and Critique of Daily Life » (p. 23-56)

Résumé : Sociology has often included the temporal dimension to researches as a variable, but rarely chose to focus specifically on time. As social representation instituted, full of the history of our society, time is however a socio-anthropological object that captures contemporary issues and capitalist relations of domination. We propose here a look on the developments over time to explain how time is an institution. Then, we propose a contemporary reading of the phenomenon (temporal anomy) in front of individualization and hypernomy. We finally propose new tools to understand the contemporary times. These tools are built on a critical perspective inherited from the French School of socio-anthropology and Marxist heterodoxy. The perspective opposes social time-instituted to instituting-time opportunities, in a dialectic actor-system. Behind this communication, you can read the program of an ongoing research.

Mots-clefs : Time, Instituted, Instituting, Henri Lefebvre, Moments, Daily-Life.

ALIS SOPADZHIYAN

« Bulgarian Healthcare System Reform through the Prism of Its Timeframe: Dynamics and Conflicts of a Complex Social Change » (p. 57-101)

Résumé : The present article explores the temporal dimension to the health care reform introduced in Bulgaria in the late 1990s. The author inscribes her analysis in recent research on both gradual structuring of change and historical sociology. She thus shows the reform’s dual temporality: even if the paradigmatic change introduced by the reform suggests the idea of immediacy, the reform remains strongly influenced by long term processes. Beyond its double nature, the temporality of change introduced by the reform also appears accelerated as a consequence from the complex relations between time and space, and the introduction of neo-managerial ideas in the reform’s implementation sequence. Those temporal phenomena impact on the main actors involved in the health sector’s expectations from change and suggest that the communist past remains a dominant time of the Bulgarian health system history, reviving the conflictual dynamics inherent to the system.

Mots-clefs : Health Care, Reform, Change, Trajectory, Temporality, Conflict, Bulgaria.

ALEXIS METZGER

« The Dutch Winter Landscapes Climatic Temporalities » (p. 103-121)

Résumé : The blossoming of Dutch painting is one of the richest facets of the Golden Age. Within that pictorial profusion, methodological as well as conceptual relevant thoughts come out after questioning the winter landscapes’ temporalities. This paper aims to analyze these temporalities through some Dutch pictorial representations which are part of a territory, almost homogeneous concerning the climate, politically and socially identified in the XVIIth century.
First, it will be questioned the plurisecular climatic temporality as those paintings belong to the Little Ice Age (ca. 1300-1860). The winter season will be the next time step. Finally, it will be a short time step which corresponds to the weather of the day. Knowing that the winters are particularly long and cold in the Little Ice Age, those different temporalities are interwoven.

Mots-clefs : Dutch Painting, Golden Age, Representations, Winter, Historical Climatology, Little Ice Age.

GEORGES-HENRY LAFFONT

« Grid Figure of Cinema: Mobile Cut(s) in order to Illustrate Dynamics of the Contemporary Urban » (p. 123-158)

Résumé : To represent the contemporary urban, we need to formalize rhythms and while trying not to disregard the dynamic aspect of urban. Focusing on the concept (in a French meaning) of network, this article aims to discuss conceptual and methodological stakes of the representation of the temporality and dynamics. Express graphically the network in its complexity invites to move from motionless cuts to mobile cuts. The argument advanced here is that cinema, with its graphic imagination can participate to this exercise, particulary with two graphics: the grid and the trajectory, both elements of urban analyzis.

Mots-clefs : Grid, Figure, Contempory Urban, Cinema.

CHRIS BEYE R et DOMINIQUE ROYOUX

« Mapping of Time Attractors and Panoramic Photograph, Innovating Tools for the Rhythms of the Land Observation » (p. 159-198)

Résumé : With the crisis of time, characterized by the crumbling of the social rhythms and the feeling of acceleration, thinking the temporalities through has become a new concern for the territorial public policies. However, a gap remains in the issues concerning the hypertension of the territorial rhythms and the existing methods to represent them. From the contribution of Time-geography to the “chronotope” of the istituto politecnico di Milano, studies trying to understand territorial time reveal how hard it is to portray so intangible a phenomenon. Our purpose is to present two innovative methods used in our research to facilitate chronoaménagement and chrono-planning. The first is based on the mapping of time attractors in the revision of the PLU (Plan Local d’Urbanisme) of the city of Niort. The second is based on the development of a serial snapping method destined to capture the subtle evolutions of the customs of a place in order to feed the chrono settlement.

Mots-clefs : Planning, Cartography, Chronotopes, Chrono-Planning, Photography, Public Policy, Political Timing, Rhythm, Temporality, Territory.

PIERRE PISTRE, HADRIEN COMMENGES, DAVID GUERRERO, LAURENT PROULHAC

« Operational Definitions of Time for Longitudinal Data Analysis: Illustration in the Field of Spatial Mobilities » (p. 199-236)

Résumé : Temporality of human and social phenomena raises theoretical complex issues and specific technical challenges, including analyzing and visualizing of temporal information. This paper proposes an operational typology of three kinds of time: schedule-time, process-time and succession-time. Then it illustrates the usefulness of this typology through three case studies dealing with mobility (residential trajectories, programs of activities and daily trips, routes of freight delivery). These examples are analyzed using longitudinal data and several modes of graphical representation (distribution plot, sequence frequency plot, slide plot). Our approach is willing to enrich and clarify the understanding of time as an attribute into a statistical information system. This approach is inductive and pragmatic: we started with specific thematic and technical issues regarding the analysis and the graphical representation of longitudinal data to move towards theoretical specifications of time. In short, we tried to model an appropriate time to our research objects. This research approach is rendered in reverse in the article: from the theoretical thinking about time to the field of spatial mobility.

Mots-clefs : Temporalities, Visualization, Longitudinal Analysis, Trajectory.

Léa Sébastien

« From the Measurement of Time to the Analysis of Action Sequences: Dynamics of the Attention in Museum Visitor Studies » (p. 237-271)

Résumé : This article focuses on the use of spatiotemporal data in timing and tracking visitor studies. It underlines a paradox common in such researches: they use sequential data, ordered sequences of coordinates, but do not take into account the temporalities of the visitor experience in their analyses. We propose two explanations. First, the evaluation perspective that visitor studies usually take encourages the researchers to change their scale of analysis by turning actor-centered data into object-centered analyses. Second, the standardization of analytical tools did not stimulate the adoption of sequential data analysis. Finally, we present the first results of an ethnographic fieldwork on the museum reception of an old master’s work, and we show how one could make sense of the temporalities of the visitor experience.

Mots-clefs : Audiences, Museum, Exposition, Visit, Observation, Time.

MATTHIEU ADAM

« The Eternal Lateness. Reflection on the Moment of Observation of the Dynamic Objects: The Example of Urban Projects and Representation of the City » (p. 273-303)

Résumé : We can describe some objects as dynamic: they evolve and their actors with them for we are studying them. These objects are influenced by a multitude of temporalities, which implicates to consider them in their full complexity. However, our scientific approaches and practices constraints require us to “freeze” our objects in a state, to make “cuts”, to stop our observations, to choose a short time t to observe them. Doing that is proceeding to a simplification of reality and the choices made directly affect the content of the research and the validity of the results. From the example of a research concerned with representations of the contemporary city entered through the mediation of urban projects, this paper proposes a reflection on the determination of the most suitable time to observe a dynamic object and the consequences of this choices on search results that the researcher is able to produce.

Mots-clefs : Field Investigation, Dynamic Objects, Temporalities, Urban Project, Representations.